Of the thousands of marine ornamental species traded in the burgeoning aquarium trade, less than 10 percent are bred in captivity. The undesirable practice of collecting marine ornamentals from the wild results in a high mortality rate of captured organisms, noticeable depletion of less abundant species, and furthermore, the destruction of coral reefs around the world. Aquaculture reduces the aquarium trade’s dependency on wild caught organisms.

Wrasses and angelfish in a fish collecting bucket.

Collection vs Breeding

Culturing marine ornamentals is a lucrative and environmentally sound alternative to harvesting them from their reef habitat. Unfortunately, the practice ...
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Aquaculture complex at Bali Aquarich, Indonesia.

Basic Aquaculture Process

Raising marine ornamentals in captivity principally is providing the right nutrition and environment for: Adults to produce quality eggs (Broodtock ...
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Bumphead Parrotfish (Scarus perrico) spawning aggregation.

Reef Fish Reproduction

Coral reefs are complex and extremely variable ecosystems. Reef fishes have evolved a fascinating and diverse reproductive biology to maximize ...
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Left: Resplendent Angelfish male and Cherubfish female (parents). Right: Resplendent Cherubfish juvenile, 200 dph.

My Research: Fish Breeding, Larval Fish and more

Much of my career has focused on developing breeding techniques for difficult-to-raise marine ornamental fish species. In 2001, I raised ...
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Palette surgeonfish (Paracanthurus hepatus)

Captive-bred Species List

Marine ornamental culture has made considerable progress in recent years. About 330 marine ornamental fish species have been captive-bred as of 2017, ...
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A fish larva (example: longnose butterflyfish).


Definitions of special application to fish larvae adhesive egg – an egg which adheres on contact to substrate material or other ...
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